Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Leadership and service improvement - Essay Example We have adopted a QCC drive to carry out the function of patient observations for the first 24 hours of their admission at intervals of four hours each. Thereafter the nurses are required to apply their professional intellect and decide how often the patients need observation. My unit decided that eight-hour-intervals would be quite appropriate for patient observations for the next forty eight hours of their admission. All our patient observations go into the database to enable the Trust note when we complete them on time and when we fail to as well. Failure of which, a fine is charged on all the nurses by the QCC. My unit and I decided that our first patient observations during the initial twenty four hours which are to be done at eight-hour intervals would be at 6:00 hours and 14:00 hours respectively. As for the latter patient observations at four-hour intervals, we agreed upon 6:00 hours, 10:00 hours, 14:00 hours, 18:00 hours, 22:00 hours and 2:00 hours in that order. The rest of the hours are appropriate but for 6:00 hours, which is undoubtedly a challenge. First off, the patients do need their rest. Waking them up at 6:00 hours in the morning for their routine observations certainly does not help this aspect of their recovery. The daily routine at the National Health Service commences at 7:00 hours. ... My master plan is mainly focused on the leadership problems we have at the facility. It is my belief that most of the shortcomings we experience at the work area are as a result of poor leadership, which in turn leads to poor formation of plans and hence failure. Therefore I intend to address this issue and offer a better approach to the leadership and management of the ward. It is important that a leader first have that position, but if you want to become a real leader, you have to qualify for that position before your followers will really look up to you as their leader (Bacher, 272). Leadership is something that must be earned. For the purpose of ensuring the success of my service improvement plan I ha handle the leadership issue at my work are.ve a couple of leadership styles and theories that I believe would be appropriate for solving the leadership problem at my work area. Different types of organizations or species are needed in different types of environments (Farmer, 256). T ransactional leadership Transactional can also be referred to as managerial leadership. It mainly deals with the task of supervising, organizing and group performance. Assumptions of transactional leadership For people to work y and efficiently and give their best performance, there needs to be a definite and obvious chain of command. The things that motivate workers the most are when they are promised a reward or threatened with a punishment. The workers are usually keen on following orders of the leader. The workers are supposed to be monitored so as to ensure that they are doing as expected. Application of transactional leadership Transactional leadership simply operates as an exchange
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Fine and popular art - Essay Example Such processes, although perhaps considered the results of skilled craftsmanship and artisanship in both the academy and the popular mind, were not generally believed to lend themselves to the type of refined art-making that the serious artist pursued. By emphasizing the role that art plays in popular culture and vice-versa, however, the pop art movement attempted to bridge the gap between what had been for the last several hundred years a strict division between the fine arts and the popular arts. ... While both may deal with such topics as race, economics, poverty, gender, and the like through their approaches to meeting human needs and providing form that shapes human content, the fine arts have traditionally been considered to be driven by a special refined quality that is sensitive and sensible and that revolves around a particular kind of insight and training, while the popular arts have traditionally been viewed as meeting economic needs with skilled action. The difference, in other words, seems to be a psychological one as well as an economic one. Popular artists apply skills to developing products and goods that, while beautiful, are primarily functional. Fine artists develop products which are primarily communicative. Larry Shriner, in his book The Invention of Art, argues that it was only in the 18th Century that the fine arts split off from the popular arts. Until that time many of the artists that today are considered serious fine artists from the past were essentially considered to very highly skilled artisans in their own day, and their works were considered to be highly representative forms of skilled craftsmanship. In 18th Century Europe, however, a cultural elite began to make distinctions between craftsmanship and Ã¢â¬Å"artÃ¢â¬ in order to separate themselves from the masses in taste and practice. The effort was so successful that they began to define art backwards, and works of skilled artisanship that were, for example, found in the colonies conquered by this cultural elite came to be called Ã¢â¬Å"primative artÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â as though such products were approaching fine art but had not yet arrived. ShrinerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument suggests that the distinction between fine art and the popular arts is largely
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Two English Learning Visual Advertisements Essay It was not until the advent of Ã¢â¬Å"new media ageÃ¢â¬ , which by definition involves prevailing digital-mediated communication modes and substantial usage of multiple semiotic resources combined in the realization of discourses, did the mainstream preference of monomodality unprecedentedly challenged (Kress Van Leeuwen, 2001). Language, as one of the semiotic resources, is by no means the only carrier to realize discourses. Diversity should be acknowledged in the current age when visual, audio and other kinds of semiotic resources are convenient and efficient in delivering the abstract discourses concept into expressions (Kress, 2003). The present study will base its analysis primarily on the multimodal discourse analysis framework and visual grammar proposed by Kress and Van Leeuwen (1996, 2001), as an application of their theoretical framework into practices. Since the multimodal discourse analysis (hereafter MDA) theory has been established only within this recent decade, and it is relatively hard to find solid references to support this theory, flaws and limitations are therefore unavoidable. As MDA is considered the subdivision of Systemic Functional Linguistics (hereafter SFL) which focus on social semiotic approach of critical discourse analysis (hereafter CDA), this present study should be considered as an experimental attempt of utilizing MDA in incorporating social culture and ideology into discourse analysis. Firstly, the rationale underneath this present research is based on Kress and LeeuwenÃ¢â¬â¢s four-layered meaning rendering domains known as Ã¢â¬Å"strataÃ¢â¬ (Kress Leeuwen, 2001), as well as their theoretical construction of visual grammar, which is an outspread, or more specifically generalization of verbal grammar (Kress Leeuwen, 1996). Basically, the theory of strata gives an overall account of meaning-making in multiple articulations among discourse, design, production and distribution, the first two of which being associated with content and the latter two with expression. The basic meaning making flow is conceptualization (from discourse to d esign), materialization (from design to production) and reproduction (from production to distribution). In this research, only the first phase of meaning articulation will be dealt with, because the data analyzed here are visual advertisement posters on the internet without tangible material texture such as paper or stone, which made the analysis less complex and more focused. According to Kress and Van Leeuwen (2001, pp.21), the process of design involves three things simultaneously: (1) a formulation of a discourse or combination of discourses, (2) a particular (inter)action, in which the discourse is embedded, and (3) a particular way of combining semiotic modes. This threefold process has at least two implications: (1) the realization of social communication by encoding the abstract discourse into a specific design and (2) deliberate choice of communication media through which the meaning could be more effectively delivered, such as the combination of music, image and sequence in films. For the second implication, this present research only involves visual mode of semiotic resource which further reduced the complication of analysis. The first implication is actually the central focus in this research paper. If the process of designing is, to some extend, a process of encoding, then using the visual grammar to analyze this design is exactly the reverse process, namely decoding. That is to say, this paper is aiming at using visual grammar as a tool to decode the visual image so that to find out the hidden social constructed discourses underneath the poster. The similarity between visual grammar and verbal grammar lies in their system underlying the language-use, the ubiquitous fundamental elements of linguistic rules (Chomsky, 1972). This generative grammar lends validity to the set of rules Kress proposed suitable for analyzing visual literacy or visual language. This present analysis will primarily follow KressÃ¢â¬â¢ framework of visual grammar, divided into three levels: representational, interactional and compositional. The representational grammar is heavily associated with ideational meaning in SFL, which basically deals with the internal relations between the depicted participant s and a setting of circumstances in which they occur. The representational grammar is basically realized by vectors which could exhibit the interrelations between the participants or between the participant and the viewer. In advertisement 1 (see appendix), the participant is a young white-collar employee who desperately gazing towards the reader/viewer. From the perspective of the representational grammar, this is a non-transactional reaction, characterized by a gazer but without a phenomenon appearing on the poster. The non-transactional process is characterized by a vector extending from the gazerÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes towards directly outside the poster or to the reader/viewer who looks at the poster. Similarly, advertisement 2 (see appendix) also shows a non-transactional reaction. But the gazerÃ¢â¬âa caricature figure of ancient Chinese historical character Zhuge LiangÃ¢â¬âdoes not extend his eye-line vector directly towards the reader but to somewhere else without specified phenomenon. Moreover, the second advertisement has, though implicit, an action vector: the feather fan in the cartoon figureÃ¢â¬â¢s hand indicates a manner of waving. Although this action vector is also non-transactional, it is stronger than a reaction vector. If comparing these two posters from a representational level, the first one is completely reaction vector with clear pointing angle to the reader. That is to say, the reader/viewer here is actually the phenomenon of the gazer. The second one has both action vector and reaction vector, though both non-transactional. The action vector adds to the posterÃ¢â¬â¢s agentive quality and centralized its salience on the movement of waving feather fan. The interactive grammar is concerned with social relations between interactants and the represented world of text (readers/viewers). There are four major systems: contacts, social distance, attitude and modality (Kress Van Leeuwen, 1996, pp.43-118). The following part will analyze the two posters within each system. In the first advertisement, the interactive participant, or that young male white-collar imposes a Ã¢â¬Å"demandÃ¢â¬ contact towards t he viewer, which is a direct eye-line vector towards outside the poster. Contrastively, the gazer on the second poster presented an Ã¢â¬Å"offerÃ¢â¬ contact, which is characterized by no direct eye contact (though imaginary) with the viewer. The distinction between demand and offer significantly distinguished these two posters. The mood represented in the first one is more engaged, direct and intensive. The young male looks directly to the reader as if interrogating the readers if they had been through the same desperation and suspicion on the fact whether Chinese could ever learn English well. He seeks the recognition and resonances from the reader towards his own feelings. His demanding eye-line attracts the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s counter-directional reaction vector, and the reader will feel passively being gazed and therefore a tense feeling and obliged inward self-inspection: Ã¢â¬Å"whether I am just like him who cannot learn English well.Ã¢â¬ However, the mood in the second poster is more disentangled, aloof and carefree. The cartoon character looks at somewhere else as if intentionally avoiding eye contact with the reader. This manner of Ã¢â¬Å"offerÃ¢â¬ invites the reader to cast reaction vector towards him. By showing a confident manner of Ã¢â¬Å"already discovered the secrets of learning EnglishÃ¢â¬ , this advertisement uses the absence of contact as a strategy to arouse viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in discovering Ã¢â¬Å"what exactly is the secret that this ancient sage hasÃ¢â¬ . Similarly, under the social distance system of analysis, the first poster is very intimate/personal, characterized by a close shot, yet the second one is relatively impersonal under a medium shot. From the perspective of attitude system, the first poster is presented from a front, eye-level angle which represents heavy involvement and equal status with the viewers. The designer of the poster intends to create a young man who could be anyone of those young white-collar who has problems learning English. The second one is also presented from a front, eye-level angle. Yet it is noticeable that due to the disproportion of its body and the small proportion between his eyes and the entire face, it is very likely to get an illusion that it is a low angle, which signifies the represented participantÃ¢â¬â¢s power. The compositional grammar primarily deals with the way in which information or value is transferred from the represented participants towards the viewers. Since the two posters both adopted a centered circular position which presented their central characters in the very core of the composition, there is very little to compare in the aspect.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Adolf Hitler The interesting life of Adolf Hitler is not fully known to people. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, the fourth child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two of his siblings died from diphtheria when they were children, and one died shortly after birth. Alois was a customs official, illegitimate by birth, which was described by his housemaid as a "very strict but comfortable" man. His mother showered Young Adolf with love and affection. When Adolf was three years old, the family moved to Passau, along the Inn River on the German side of the border. A brother, Edmond, was born two years later. The family moved once more in 1895 to the farm community of Hafeld, 30 miles southwest of Linz. Another sister, Paula, was born in 1896, the sixth of the union, supplemented by a half brother and half sister from one of his father's two previous marriages. Following another family move, Adolf lived for six months across from a large Benedictine monastery. The monastery's coat of arms' most salient feature was a swastika. As a youngster, Adolf's dream was to enter the priesthood. While there is anecdotal evidence that Adolf's father regularly beat him during his childhood, it was not unusual for discipline to be enforced in that way during that period. By 1900, Hitler's talents as an artist surfaced. He did well enough in school to be eligible for either the university pre paratory "gymnasium" or the technical/scientific Realschule. Because the latter had a course in drawing, Adolf accepted his father's decision to enroll him in the Realschule. He did not do well there. Adolf's father died in 1903 after suffering a pleural hemorrhage. Adolf himself suffered from lung infections, and he quit school at the age of 16, partially the result of ill health and partially the result of poor school work. In 1906, Adolf was permitted to visit Vienna, but he was unable to gain admission to a prestigious art school. His mother developed terminal breast cancer and was treated by Dr. Edward Bloch, a Jewish doctor who served the poor. After an operation and excruciatingly painful and expensive treatments with a dangerous drug, she died on December 21, 1907. Hitler spent six years in Vienna, living on a small legacy from his father and an orphan's pension. Virtually penniless by 1909, he wandered Vienna as a transient, sleeping in bars, flophouses, and shelters for th e homeless, including, ironically, those financed by Jewish philanthropists.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Conclusion: There are 3 different component dyes in the mix including blue dye, yellow dye and red dye. The blue dye has the highest Rf in chromatography ( Rf=1 in water and ethanol and isoprophy alcohol). The yellow dye has the lowest Rf in chromatography in ethanol and isoprophy alcohol and middle Rf in water (Rf=0.17 and isoprophy alcohol and lowest Rf in water (Rf=0.816 in ethanol, Rf= 0.678 in water and Rf=0.680 in isoprophy alcohol). Real World Connection HPLC-MS stands for High performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. HPLC-MS shares the same principle with paper chromatography. They both separate mixture using the difference in different affinities to mobile/stationary phase of different components. However, HPLC-MC is far different from paper chromatography. Firstly, HPLC-MC is composed of a liquid chromatography and a mass spectrometer. This instrumentation enables HPLC-MC to analyze a much wider range of components. While paper chromatography only qualitatively separate different component in a liquid mixture, HPLC-MS can quantitatively examine each component, including Compounds that are thermally labile, exhibit high polarity or have a high molecular mass. Secondly, paper chromatography use solvent as mobile phase and paper as stationary phase, but in HPLC-MS the mobile phase is the mixture of liquid and the stationary phase is the solid through which liquid flow. Thirdly, paper chromatography can be carried out at normal temperature and pressure, but HPLC-MS sometimes needs to be done under high pressure and certain temperature to successfully drive the liquid through the solid and best demonstrate the difference in affinities of different liquid compound.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Theory of modernity is based on the notion of social progress, it implies that all of society, in whatever era they exist and in what region or were located, are involved in a single, all-consuming, the universal process of the ascent of human society from savagery to civilization. Culture of modernity is defining the development of European civilization for four centuries. It based on the idea of progress and human values, which are now, cherished every European: a democratic political system, economic freedom, professional excellence, autonomy, civil society and legal state. The French Revolution - perhaps the most powerful shock of the XVIII century - changed the face of France, giving it a modern character. ItÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As The Age of Enlightenment passed through Europe, these religious identities began to decline due to the development of national ones that were defined by set geographic regions. One of the main characteristics of modernity is the idea of sovereignty which by definition is the supreme and independent power of a state. The first concrete sovereign states came out during the Age of Enlightenment with the French Revolution and its upheavals in its classes as well as its government. The creation of a National Assembly from t he members of the Third Estate of France is directly linked to the creation of modern sovereignty and the emergence of an identity free of the traditional social order. Modernity arose during the Age of Enlightenment because there was great social and political upheaval going around. Ideas of the old were being thrown out in the favor of new and progressive ones. People began to move away from the feudalistic society that had set social orders with the church as the main power to a society with set geographic boundaries with the state as the supreme power and not the church. With this came a national identity that strayed away from religion and moved closer to the idea of a nation-state. Before the French Revolution, France was divided into three class systems known as estates. The First Estate was the clergy, the Second being the nobility and the Third being everyone else. The First and Second Estate held a majority ofShow MoreRelatedModernity and Classical Sociology Theory Essays1855 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Paul de Man once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Modernity exists in the form of a desire to wipe out whatever came earlier, in the hope of reaching at least a point that could be called a true present, a point of origin that marks a new departure.Ã¢â¬ But what is he really trying to say? Modernity takes out the old and brings in the new, continually upgrading to something else? Modernity appears as a concept of change. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019
Sharecropping was a system of agriculture instituted in the American South during the period of Reconstruction after the Civil War. It essentially replaced the plantation system which had relied on slave labor and effectively created a new system of bondage. Under the system of sharecropping, a poor farmer who did not own land would work a plot belonging to a landowner. The farmer would receive a share of the harvest as payment. So while the former slave was technically free, he would still find himself bound to the land, which was often the very same land he had farmed while enslaved. And in practice, the newly freed slave faced a life of extremely limited economic opportunity. Generally speaking, sharecropping doomed freed slaves to a life of poverty. And the system of sharecropping, in actual practice, doomed generations of American in the South to an impoverished existence in an economically stunted region. Beginning of the Sharecropping System Following the elimination of slavery, the plantation system in the South could no longer exist. Landowners, such as cotton planters who had owned vast plantations, had to face a new economic reality. They may have owned vast amounts of land, but they did not have the labor to work it, and they did not have the money to hire farm workers. The millions of freed slaves also had to face a new way of life. Though freed from bondage, they had to cope with numerous problems in the post-slavery economy. Many freed slaves were illiterate, and all they knew was farm work. And they were unfamiliar with the concept of working for wages. Indeed, with freedom, many former slaves aspired to become independent farmers owning land. And such aspirations were fueled by rumors that the U.S. government would help them get a start as farmers with a promise of forty acres and a mule. In reality, former slaves were seldom able to establish themselves as independent farmers. And as plantation owners broke up their estates into smaller farms, many former slaves became sharecroppers on the land of their former masters. How Sharecropping Worked In a typical situation, a landowner would supply a farmer and his family with a house, which may have been a shack previously used as a slave cabin. The landowner would also supply seeds, farming tools, and other necessary materials. The cost of such items would later be deducted from anything the farmer earned. Much of the farming done as sharecropping was essentially the same type of labor-intensive cotton farming which had been done under slavery. At harvest time, the crop was taken by the landowner to market and sold. From the money received, the landowner would first deduct the cost of seeds and any other supplies. The proceeds of what was left would be split between the landowner and the farmer. In a typical scenario, the farmer would receive half, though sometimes the share given to the farmer would be less. In such a situation, the farmer, or sharecropper, was essentially powerless. And if the harvest was bad, the sharecropper could actually wind up in debt to the landowner. Such debts were virtually impossible to overcome, so sharecropping often created situations where farmers were locked into a life of poverty. Sharecropping is thus often known as slavery by another name, or debt slavery. Some sharecroppers, if they had successful harvests and managed to accumulate enough cash, could become tenant farmers, which was considered a higher status. A tenant farmer rented land from a landowner and had more control over how the management of his farming. However, tenant farmers also tended to be mired in poverty. Economic Effects of Sharecropping While the sharecropping system arose from the devastation following the Civil War and was a response to an urgent situation, it became a permanent situation in the South. And over the span of decades, it was not beneficial for southern agriculture. One negative effect of sharecropping was that it tended to create a one-crop economy. Landowners tended to want sharecroppers to plant and harvest cotton, as that was the crop with the most value, and the lack of crop rotation tended to exhaust the soil. There were also severe economic problems as the price of cotton fluctuated. Very good profits could be made in cotton if the conditions and weather were favorable. But it tended to be speculative. By the end of the 19th century, the price of cotton had dropped considerably. In 1866 cotton prices were in the range of 43 cents a pound, and by the 1880s and 1890s, it never went above 10 cents a pound. At the same time that the price of cotton was dropping, farms in the South were being carved up into smaller and smaller plots. All these conditions contributed to widespread poverty. And for most freed slaves, the system of sharecropping and the resulting poverty meant their dream of operating their own farm could never be achieved. The system of sharecropping endured beyond the late 1800s. For the early decades of the 20th century it was still in effect in parts of the American South. The cycle of economic misery created by sharecropping did not fully fade away the era of the Great Depression. Sources: Sharecropping.Ã Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History, edited by Thomas Carson and Mary Bonk, vol. 2, Gale, 2000, pp. 912-913.Ã Gale Virtual Reference Library. Hyde, Samuel C., Jr. Sharecropping and Tenant Farming.Ã Americans at War, edited by John P. Resch, vol. 2: 1816-1900, Macmillan Reference USA, 2005, pp. 156-157.Ã Gale Virtual Reference Library.